Citation style

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Philosophical Inquiries adopts a variation of Harvard author-date citation style. Substantive notes are numbered, references are parenthetical (in-text, in round brackets), bibliography is compulsory. Compared to Harvad style, philinq uses a simplified punctuation and a “European” style with regard to Publisher-City order.

Quotations and punctuation

Quotation marks: double inverted commas. Use single inverted commas in nested quotations only.
Terminal punctuation ought to be inside quotation marks.
Superscripts ought to be outside quotation marks and outside terminal puncutation.
In-text references ought to follow quotation marks.
Quoted question marks are of course considered part of the quotation.

“quoted text[superscript, if applicable]” (reference).
“Is this a question?” (reference).

In-text references

Books, essays, published/unpublished conference papers, etc... are all referred to through Author and year.
Commas are used to separate different (multiple) authors. Colons are used instead of “p.” or “pp.”. Semicolons are used to distinguish different works and the original edition from a translation in use (if applicable). Letters are used to distinguish different works written by the same author in the same year.

Single author:

Sophisticated searching techniques are important in finding information (Rossi 1994).
Rossi (1994) claimed that sophisticated searching...
Rossi states that “sophisticated searching techniques are important in finding information” (1994: 33).

Multiple authors: add et al. (always italicised)

Sophisticated searching techniques are important in finding information (Rossi et al. 1994).

Translation:

Rossi states that “sophisticated searching techniques are important in finding information” (1994: 33; Eng. tr. 1998: 28).
ABRIDGED FORM
Rossi states that “sophisticated searching techniques are important in finding information” (1994: Eng. tr. 28).

Multiple works:

Sophisticated searching techniques are important in finding information (Rossi 1994; 1996).
Sophisticated searching techniques are important in finding information (Rossi 1994; Bianchi 1999).
Sophisticated searching techniques are important in finding information (Rossi 1994a; 1994b).

Avoid redundancies:

Rossi has been working on this subject for almost a decade. In his essay on searching techniques (1994), he states that they are “extremely important in finding information” (33).
Rossi has been working on this subject for almost a decade. In his essay on searching techniques (1994), he states that they are “extremely important in finding information” (Eng. tr. 28).

Coincidence of surname: use initial(s)

Sophisticated searching techniques are important in finding information (Rossi G. 1994).

Edited books

In their work on searching techniques (Rossi 1994), the Italian team on Information Engineering...

References

References are ordered alphabetically by last name. First personal names ought to be in extended form. Multiple works from the same author will be ordered by year, most recent to oldest.

Elements of the citation

Books

Author of book – last name, first name, Year of publication, ed(s). if applicable, Title of book – italicised, Translator if applicable, Edition if applicable, Publisher, Place of publication.
Rossi, Giovanni, 1994, ed., Information Engineering, ETS, Pisa.
MULTIPLE AUTHORS (UP TO THREE)
First Author of the book – last name, first name, Other Author(s) first name last name, Year of publication, ed(s). if applicable, Title of book – italicised, Edition if applicable, Publisher, Place of publication.
Rossi, Giovanni, Francesca Bianchi, Giuseppe Verde, 1994, Information Engineering, ETS, Pisa.
MULTIPLE AUTHORS (MORE THAN THREE): YOU CAN USE ET AL.
Rossi, Giovanni, Francesca Bianchi, Giuseppe Verde et al., 1994, Information Engineering, ETS, Pisa.
TRANSLATIONS (WHEN QUOTED)
Ricœur, Paul, 1983, Temps et récit, Seuil, Paris; Eng. tr. by David Pellauer 1990, Time and Narrative, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
PLEASE NOTE THAT ABBREVIATIONS FOR LANGUAGES KEEP THEIR CAPITAL LETTER (Eng., Fr., Ger., It., etc...)

Chapter in a book

Author(s) of chapter – last name, first name, Year of publication, “Title of chapter – in double quotation marks”, in Editor(s) – family name, first name, ed(s). Title of book – italicised, Edition, Publisher, Place of publication: Page numbers.
PLEASE NOTE THAT WHEN MULTIPLE CHAPTERS FROM A COLLECTIVE BOOK ARE QUOTED, REFERENCE SHOULD REFLECT NON-REDUNDANT CRITERIA, THUS INCLUDING A SPECIFIC REFERENCE FOR THE EDITED BOOK AND ABRIDGING CHAPTER REFERENCE AS FOLLOWS
Author(s) of chapter – last name, first name, Year of publication, “Title of chapter – in double quotation marks”, in Editor(s) Last name Year of publication if not redundant: Page numbers.

Journal article

Author(s) – last name, first name, Year of publication, “Title of chapter – in double quotation marks”, in Title of journal – italicised, Volume, Issue or number: Page number(s).
Bhabha, Homi K., 1985, “Signs Taken for Wonders: Questions of Ambivalence and Authority under a Tree Outside Delhi, May 1817”, in Critical Inquiry, 12, 1: 144-165.

With regard to journals, the wide variety of choices and practices may pose several dilemmas. Few possibilities are hereby explored:

  • Yearly journals: use volume number only.
  • Double issues: use hyphen between each number.
  • Special issues: cite extended special issue title if applicable, either add “s” before page numbers, either follow what is written in the front page (e.g. “bis” or “special issue” or “Spanish Edition”, or...):
    • Harper, Phillip Brian, Anne McClintock, Josè Esteban Muñoz and Trish Rosen, 1997, eds., Social Text, 52-53, Queer Transexions of Race, Nation, and Gender.
    • ...Critical Inquiry, 12: s1-s18.
    • ...Critical Inquiry, 12, 1 bis: 1-18.
    • ...Critical Inquiry, 12, 1, Spanish edition: 1-18.

Web page

Author(s) of page – {last name, first name,} OR organisation name Year (page created or revised), Title of page - italicised, Publisher (if applicable), Place of publication (if applicable), viewed date, URL.

Conference paper

PUBLISHED
“Chapter in a book” criteria apply. Title of proceedings – italicised – may include place and date
UNPUBLISHED
Author(s) of chapter – last name, first name, Year of publication, “Title of paper – in double quotation marks”, paper presented to Title of congress meeting should include place and date.



ISSN: 2282-0248